History of Iran

The history of Iran includes all the tribes and people who have lived within the current borders of the country and also those who have lived on lands than anciently have been parts of the vast territory of Iran.

The history of Iran sometimes is studied from the time of Aryans migration to Iran, but it doesn’t mean that there were no civilizations earlier. Actually great civilizations had been emerged, flourished and some of them had still existed and were affected by Aryans. For example Burnt City in Sistan, Ilam in north of Khuzestan, Jiroft jn Kerman, Sialk in Kashan, Urartu in Azerbaijan, Gian Hill in Nahavand, Mannay in kordestan and Azerbaijan, Kasit or Kasy in lorestan.

The acceptable theory is that the tribes who were named Aryans -meaning noble-  migrated to the plateau of Iran during the second millennium BC. Observing their mythology and language shows that they had close ties with Indians.

Segments of history of iran

There are two different views about the history of Iran before Islam. The first view is traditional, based on traditional histories like Shahname and begins with King Kiomars who was the emperor of the world not just Iran and includes Pishdadian and Kayanids dynasties and Parthian and Sasanian empires. This view is mythical and contains valuable mythological and sociological information.

The second one is based on sciense documents, archeological discoveries and Greek, Armenian and Roman histories. This view is modern and scientific and includes Iranian dynasties and empires.

It may be hard for many people to believe that from 651 AD to 1304 AD – when Qajar dynasty abolished- over 150 independent and semi-independent dynasties and empires ruled over Iran, and among them, only the three empires of Seljuks, Moguls, Safavids and King Nader could rule over the whole country. Empires and dynasties such as Taherian, Safaris, Samanids, Ghaznavids, kharazmshahian, Qara Qoyunlu or Black Sheep Turkomans, Aq Qoyunlu or White Sheep Turkomans, Zand and Qajar couldn’t rule all over the country although they had powerful kings.

The western knowledge of Iran’s history has always been affected with the hostility of Arab Sunni and Greek historians with Iran. Different generations of European scholars are influenced with Herodotus’s writings and his stories about wars with Iran, and the problem is that most of the people all over the world are acquainted with Iran through these unfair writings.




Persian empires before Islam

Medes (ca. 678 BCE–549 BCE)

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Sasanian Empire (224–651 BC)

Seleucid Empire (312–63  BC)

Parthian Empire (247 BC– 224 AD)

Sasanian Empire (224–651)


Persian empires after eslam

Taherian Empire (821-873)

Safaris Empire (875-900)

Samanids (819–999)

Ziyarid Dynasty (928-1070)

Buwayhid (932-1049)

Ghaznavids (998-1160)

Seljuk Dynasty (1038-1194)

Kharazmshahian (1078-1220)

Ilkhans (1256-1336)

Timurid (1370-1498)

Safavid dynasty (1501-1723)

Afshar (1735-1748)

Zand dynasty (1750-1795)

Qajar (1795-1927)

Pahlavi (1926-1979)

Islamic Republic of Iran (1979- until now)